Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa, poor in natural resources, and with low levels of human development. Its economy remains agricultural and focused on food crops and cotton production. Over the last twenty years it has experienced average annual growth of around 2%. However, poverty rates have remained unchanged. Burkina Faso’s growth was mainly agricultural and driven by the expansion of arable land, not productivity enhancements, trapping a large segment of the population in poverty. Though country has experienced consistent aggregate growth over the past two decades, significant transformation in poverty reduction has not been seen. The country is experiencing rampant urbanization, characterized by a growing concentration of populations in cities. The cities are spreading very quickly, without the necessary measures and support in terms of planning, administration, infrastructure, equipment and services. Some of these challenges need to be addressed through: i.) support of human capacity building program, ii.) promotion of planning and urban planning, iii.) promotion of access to decent housing, iv.) improvement of urban governance and v.) the control of the geographical extension of the city of Ouagadougou.