The Urui-Ayura landscape in the northern part of Papua covers two districts - the swampy lowlands in Waropen and the island of Yapen that are divided by the Saireri strait. The area is mainly made up of forest, with many rivers and creeks. The forest cover in this region is still relatively intact, but concessions for logging, industrial plantations and mining may lead to deteriorating forest conditions and ecosystem services, resulting in a deficit of water in the dry season and floods in the rainy season. These activities will also compromise the livelihoods of indigenous communities, which strongly rely on both forest products and small-scale cultivation for food and cash crops (such as coffee). The shoreline is dominated by extensive mangrove and sago forests. Mangroves perform an important function as a spawning area for many species of fish and shrimp. It contributes significantly to the livelihoods of coastal communities, who depend on small-scale fishing of shrimp and crab in mangrove areas. Mangroves also form a natural protection against flooding. However, construction companies are threatening the ecosystem and the livelihoods of coastal communities by taking resources, such as corals, stones and sand, to use as building materials from beaches and coastal marine areas. This is also having impact on mangrove forests and spawning grounds, threatening the water and food security of the communities. Most large construction projects are being run by the government, such as road construction to connect new towns and airports, triggered by the creation of new districts and provinces. Local populations are also taking building materials from the coast and chopping firewood from the mangrove forests.