"Around the turn of the millennium, Sudan’s eastern states of Gadaref, Kassala and Red Sea went through a period of violence and turmoil, which was partly caused by fragile ecosystems, deeply entrenched poverty and underinvestment. After the signing of the Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement (ESPA) in 2005, the situation has been calm, but the three states still have high rates of poverty and malnutrition .
Livelihoods in the three states are predominantly rural, centred around animal husbandry and agriculture. Average annual rainfall varies from less than 100 mm in parts of Red Sea and Kassala to over 700 mm in the southernmost parts of Gadaref. Being so scarce, water is a primary factor that constrains rural livelihoods in the three states. In order to structurally improve the productivity of animal husbandry and agriculture, integrated water resources management (IWRM) is a prerequisite.
In June 2015, ZOA together with International Aid Services, Islamic Relief Worldwide, Plan International Sudan, Practical Action and SOS Sahel Sudan (working together in the Aqua4East Partnership) was awarded funding by DFID for an action that aims at improving access to water, sanitation and hygiene. Starting point for this action is a catchment-level IWRM approach, in which stakeholders will be brought together to jointly develop a plan for development and management of water resources within catchment areas, after which interventions aimed at improving drinking water supply and the promotion of improved sanitation and hygiene practices will be implemented. That action however has a fairly narrow focus on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene promotion, and does not include a component for food security.
The action proposed in this proposal will complement and enrich the DFID-funded action with a five-layered set of interventions that all revolve around improving food security.
Structurally reduced food insecurity in North Delta and Hamish Koraib localities in Kassala state.
Farmers, pastoralists and vulnerable households in the localities targeted by the action adopt practices for sustainably improving household food production or income and dietary diversity.
The project targets smallholder farmers and pastoralists, and vulnerable households. Direct beneficiaries are about 18,000 people (3,000 households) in the targeted localities.
1) Improved conservation of water for agriculture and livestock
2) Enhanced access to improved methods for primary production
3) Improved access to diverse diets
4) Improved access to off-farm sources of income
5) Lessons learnt are documented and disseminated
Result 1: (specific activities depend on catchment-level plans that will be developed under the Water for Three States project, but can include the following:) renovation/construction of water points for livestock; water harvesting for grazing land improvement; training on contour cultivation and road-side water harvesting; improvement of traditional water harvesting methods for agriculture.
Result 2: training of pastoralists on improved methods for animal husbandry; training of para-vets and Community Animal Health Workers; improving of animal vaccination systems; construction of dips where livestock can be treated against ticks; improvements to livestock corridors; training of farmers on improved agricultural practices; training of agricultural extension agents; construction of stores for agricultural production.
Result 3: Training on the importance of good nutrition; training on (and provision of basic inputs for) kitchen gardens using wastewater; support to small-scale irrigated vegetable cultivation.
Result 4: Training on food processing, production of fuel-efficient stoves, etc.; support to enterprise development, specifically but not exclusively targeting vulnerable households.
Result 5: Exchanging lessons learnt with other, similar actions in Sudan; production of technical papers; organising fora for discussion and exchange; sharing lessons learnt in externally-organised seminars and conferences